Manganese (Mn) is a hard, silvery white metal with a melting point of 1,244 °C (2,271 °F). Ordinarily too brittle to be of structural value itself, it is an essential agent in steelmaking, in which it removes impurities such as sulfur and oxygen and adds important physical properties to the metal. For these purposes it is most often employed as a ferromanganese or silicomanganese alloy; as a pure metal it is added to certain nonferrous alloys.
Although the type of manganese ore more,but the basic approach is and weakly magnetic beneficiation of iron ore beneficiation methods similar.Its unique point is:
- Processing methods is more and more used in conjunction with the Joint process almost every one job to produce qualified concentrates.
- Because manganese ore resources are concentrated,so the size of the mill generally relatively large.If the former Soviet Union was handling 30 million tons of ore in 19 plant processing,in which the Poko Rove Nikopol mill scale reached 6,000,000 tons, annual output of 2.6 million tons ore. Trout Island ore processing plant of 2.5 million tons, 1.25 million tons produced concentrates.
- High product quality.Manganese ore in the most country is high grade, dressing effect,the product quality is also high.South Africa also only manganese ore by crushing, washing, products reached 40-48% manganese,Australian average head grade of 33%, up to 42-50% manganese ore; Gabon manganese ore beneficiation by heavy media up to 49 manganese -50%,Soviet Poko Rove concentrator processing 17.5% manganese carbonate manganese ore, manganese ore by 28.6%.
- To adapt to the expansion of the mill and its equipment is also increasingly large.
- High degree of automation.
- Beneficiation processes and equipment continue to improve and update.
- The product deep processing:some of the production of manganese ore countries,a new trend is the development of the commodity manganese ore further processing into products instead of ore exports in order to increase economic efficiency.
Important Plant In Iron Ore Crushing
Crushing is an important step in iron ore precessing,so the Iron ore crusher is also an important plant in iron ore crushing.To meet your needs,Zenith can provide you with quality assurance of iron ore crusher, thereby enables the iron ore more economical, more convenient. There are lots of iron ore crusher,such as iron ore jaw crusher,iron ore impact crusher,iron ore cone crusher,etc.
Iron Ore Process
Iron ore are rich in iron oxides and vary in color from dark grey, bright yellow, deep purple, to rusty. Iron ore is the raw material used to make pig iron,that is also the main raw materials to make steel.In order to use them, we need to process them, crushing, beneficiation, and so on, to improve the grade.When crushing them,we need three step crusher that is coarse crushing,medium crushing and fine crushing.
Coarse Crushing Plant
As we know the Mohs hardness of iron ore is 4,which is relative softness.We often choose a PE series jaw crusher as the equipment for iron ore coarse crushing.PE iron ore jaw crusher is used as primary crusher. In the iron ore crushing plant, it can crush big iron ore stones into small sizes. Thus, these small iron ore can enter into the crusher for further crushing. The right cavity jaw crusher adopts really improves the capacity, maximize throughput and minimize operating costs.
Medium Crushing Plant
In the medium crushing,we can equipment our production line with a PEW jaw crusher or a PFW jaw crusher,which is mainly used for secondary and tertiary crushing of various medium-hard ores and rocks etc.They all have series advantages on the basis of PE jaw crusher.The unique design concept makes this series crusher achieve perfect combination between crushing efficiency and operating cost.This series iron ore crusher really supply simpler, higher efficient lower cost machines for clients.
Fine Crushing Plant
Cone crusher is the most common fine iron ore crusher machine.After years of improving,it offers a few outstanding features that enable you to work efficiently in any secondary, tertiary or quaternary crushing application.Zenith S series cone crusher has the better final product quality and combined with crushing, drying, grinding, classifying as a whole.
With the advantages of small size, low power consumption, small noise, simple structure,higher productivity, better reliability and flexibility, longer service life, its production capacity can reach 27-1400t/h.
In order to study the composition and species of diatomite in algae,we can obtaine the diatom monomer and other mineral association through the separation methods.According to the different mineral combination,we should adopt the appropriate method. The separation of diatom method program is continuity.
The settling velocity of mineral with different particle size and different proportion in static water is not consistent.Aterial have the distribution characteristics of layer. First, check the diatom particles size in rock slice, and crushing to the appropriate granularity.
To remove the other impurities of diatomaceous earth,we often use different acid dissolving method, in order to improve the content of the diatoms.In general the diatomite always have different degrees of containing iron, calcium,adoptting H2S04 to iron, HCl to calcium method, the concentration of the acid depends on mineral particle size.
Burning the carbonaceous organic matter to obain ashing, under the involvement of carbonaceous trivalent iron reduction into bivalent iron. According to some diatomaceous earth test, the melt temperature control in 600-900 ℃ to ensure the diatoms are not destroyed.
Magnetic and electromagnetic separation
Remove the diatomite in magnetic, electric magnetic minerals.
Ultrasonic cleaning separation
After the above steps,put the diatomite in the alcohol on ultrasonic instrument for separation and cleaning.In the solution to eliminate attached to the diatom clay, on the surface of the pollutants, improve the porosity of diatom.
Due to the existence of iron impurity greatly reduces the use value of quartz sand, affect the quality of the product, therefore, in the process of production to improve the grade of the quartz sand to reduce iron content is very important.In the real production elution mud,the raw material for water first to adopt mechanical scrubbing, ultrasonic cleaning, acid leaching, magnetic separation, flotation process to remove iron in quartz sand, such as increase the use value of the quartz sand.
Mechanical scrubbing to dislodge iron
Mechanical scrubbing is remove the film on the surface of the quartz sand iron and adhesion on the surface of the quartz sand, iron content by external mechanical forces and sand collision and friction.
Compared with other iron process it has the following features:
- It can achieve float glass products are of good quality, the quality requirements of high quality silica sand.
- High production.Now a small-scale production and processing enterprises to use this method in addition to iron, because it is low cost operation is simple, but the iron removal rate is relatively low.
Magnetic to dislodge iron
Main mineral in quartz sand, quartz,which is the magnetic materials,also is cannot be magnetized in the magnetic field.The impurities of iron in quartz sand mineral, hematite, limonite, magnetite, goethite, etc., most of them are in the magnetic material in magnetic field can be magnetized. On the magnetic separation process is the use of this property differences, through the magnetic separation to remove these mineral of iron impurities of quartz sand.
Magnetic separation can be divided into dry and wet. Wet magnetic separation have the disadvantage of magnetic separation machine power consumption is big, medium easy to wear,great water consumption of production, operation and maintenance cost higher defect.Dry magnetic separation process is easy to operate, low operating and maintenance cost of specific humidity type.
Ultrasonic to dislodge iron
In the process of transmission,Ultrasonic will interact with the medium, produce mechanical effect, thermal effect and cavitation effect. In the process of cavitation, the liquid inside the pressure mutations, which accompanied by shock wave.The pressure can amount to several thousand to tens of thousands of atmospheric pressure.Under the action of shock waves, adhesion in iron impurities on the surface of the particles from the particle surface off into the liquid phase, so as to achieve the aim of iron.
Ultrasonic to dislodge iron not only can eliminate impurities, and can remove particles of cleavage cracks in material.Thus, the iron removal effect is better. Ultrasonic to dislodge iron is the cheap resources for silica sand, it is appear more expensive, in large concentrator application will still be difficult.But for those who require high purity, less dosage of production is possible.
Flotation to dislodge iron
Flotation process is mainly used to separate the feldspar quartz sand and can also be used to remove the mica clay minerals such as quartz sand and iron flotation method can be divided into three kinds:
- Fluoride acid method. This method widely used because of its flotation effect is good, easy to control, stable. But the fluoride ion for land erosion and for weeks with the destruction of the ecological environment is very large.
- No fluoride method.The biggest advantage of this method is to avoid using fluorine ion has destructive effect to the environment, production index is stable, but the acid corrosion action on the equipment of mineral nots allow to ignore. The flotation equipment have higher requirements.
- Fluorine-free acid method. Under the condition of natural pH, through to the ion collector, create a unique high concentration slurry flotation environment and achieve the goal of preferential flotation impurity minerals.
Pickling to dislodge iron
Insoluble in acid pickling iron is the use the theory of quartz is not minerals containing but the iron impurities can be dissolved in the acid.Thereby realization the purpose of dislodging ore minerals from quartz sand. Acid leaching of ore minerals not only can be removed from quartz sand,but also has good removal effect om the non-metallic impurities of quartz mineral.Acid leaching is often use the acid such as sulfuric acid, hydrochloric acid, nitric acid and hydrofluoric acid.After dealing with the acid leaching,can obtaine high purity quartz sand with SiO2 purity of 99.99% and iron content < 235 PPM.
Biological to dislodge iron
It is a newly developed a kind of iron removal technology with microbial leaching to dislodge iron oron on the surface of the silica sand.Now at the stage of research laboratory and pilot test. According to the foreign study results show that it have achieve good results to dislodge the ferric oxide on the surface of a quartz by the aspergillus and penicillium, pear-shaped, false form afterbirth fungus bacteria, bacillus, more stick of bacillus coli, lactic acid small aureus microbes.
There are two distinct types of copper ore, the sulfide ore and the oxide ore. The sulfide ores are beneficiated in flotation cells, while the oxide ores are generally leached.
The copper ore from a open pit mine is blasted, loaded and transported to the primary crushers.
The ore is crushed and screened, with the fine sulfide ore (0.5 mm) going to froth flotation cells for recovery of copper.The coarser ore goes to the heap leach, where the copper is subjected to a dilute sulfuric acid solution to dissolve the copper.
After that the leach solution containing the dissolved copper is subjected to a process called solvent extraction (SX).
The SX process concentrates and purifies the copper leach solution so the copper can be recovered at a high electrical current efficiency by the electrowinning cells. It does this by adding a chemical reagent to the SX tanks which selectively binds with and extracts the copper, is easily separated from the copper (stripped), recovering as much of the reagent as possible for re-use. The concentrated copper solution is dissolved in sulfuric acid and sent to the electrolytic cells for recovery as copper plates (cathodes).
From the copper cathodes, it is manufactured into wire, appliances, etc. that are used in every day life.