Monthly Archives: August, 2013

Regular maintenance

Maximise the Return to the Company

The aim for the company is to maximise the return from its productive assets.
Let us keep it simple and express this as maximising the production through the year.
To achieve this,

  • (a)The machine availability must be high
  • (b)The machine must be producing at a high rate when it is operating


  • Maintenance must be considered in the context of asset utilisation
  • Mining is an asset-rich industry
  • Optimum utilisation of these assets is the only way a company will stay competitive
  • This is a task for both production and maintenance engineers.

Managing Reliability

  • Optimum utilisation of its capital investment in equipment is essential for company profits
  • Equipment reliability plays a major role in this
  • Therefore, managing reliability is a core business for a mining company
  • This is a task for both production and maintenance engineers. In the rest of this presentation, we will talk about the maintenance function.

Maintenance Function

  • Preventive Maintenance.Prevent failures by performing a set of maintenance tasks at periodic intervals
  • Service
  • Inspection
  • Replacement
  • Corrective Maintenance.Repair after a failure to bring the machine back to an operating state
  • Which one delivers higher overall system availability?

SF Series Flotation Cell

Brief introduction

SF series flotation cell can imbibe the air and ore pulp spontaneously, with a fore-raking tank not liable to precipitation into the tank but facilitating returning of the foams. Its double-blade impeller can agitate the coarse sand at the bottom adequately.



  1. Large air suction amount, low power consumption.
  2. Horizontal arrangement, no foam pump required.
  3. Low peripheral velocity of the impeller, long service life of the impeller cover plate.
  4. Upper and lower double circulation of the ore pulp in a fixed way, which is conducive to the suspension of coarse grain minerals.

Technical data

Model Effective Volume (m³) Size of Tank (L x W x H) (mm) Diameter of Impeller (mm) Impeller Speed (r/min) Capaity (m³/min) Motor Capacity (kw) Air flow sucked (m³/㎡ min) Weight of single tank (kg)
SF-0.15 0.15 500x500x600 200 536 0.06-0.18 1.5/0.55 0.8-1 269
SF-0.37 0.37 700x700x750 296 386 0.2-0.4 1.5/0.05 0.8-1 468
SF-0.7 0.7 820x900x950 350 400 0.3-0.9 3/1.1 0.8-1 805
SF-1.2 1.2 1100x1100x1100 450 312 0.6-1.2 5.5/1.1 1-1.2 1373
SF-2.8 2.8 1700x1600x1150 550 268 1.5-3.5 11/1.5 1-1.2 2138
SF-4 4 1850x2050x1200 650 220 2-4 15/1.5 1-1.2 2582
SF-8 8 2200x2900x1400 760 191 4-8 30/1.5 0.9-1 4129
SF-10 10 2200x2900x1700 760 191 5-10 30/1.5 0.9-1 4486
SF-16 16 2850x3800x1700 760 191 5-16 30×2/1.5 0.9-1 8320
SF-20 20 2850x3800x2000 760 191 5-20 30×2/1.5 0.9-1 9828



Shale is too soft and too easily broken into small pieces to be used as dimension stone or even as crushed stone (although some shale is used as “slate” for garden walkways and paving stones). The greatest potential use of shale today is as a new source of oil. It is presently estimated that 1.75 x 1015 barrels of oil are trapped in the world’s oil shales. This is 100 times the total liquid petroleum geologists expect will be removed from known oil reserves.There are many significant problems removing oil from oil shales. Environmental considerations as well as complicated technical problems make it far too expensive and presently unrealistic to remove large quantities of oil from shale.

13.8.30shale 13.8.30shale0 13.8.30shale1

The grinding machine of shale

PFW Series Impact Crusher are the latest development of impact crusher based on the more than 30 years experience and leading technology of Zenith mining machinery company in impact crusher.Designed as a primary crusher for either quarried stone or recycling concrete,the Zenith Company’s PFW series impact crusher offers advanced features to deliver a dependable, high performance Primary Andreas-style impact crusher.

The new generation PFW Series Impact Crusher have the features of heavy duty rotor design, unique hammer locking system, interchangeable wearing parts, and easy maintenance. It is an ideal primary crusher for stone crushing and quarry plant.The unique design concept makes this series crusher achieve perfect combination between crushing efficiency and operating cost. Meanwhile, it has a wide range of application, particularly is suitable for crushing hard rock, such as basalt, river pebbles.

Substitutes and Alternative Sources

There are plenty of alternatives to shale for crushed stone applications (for example, road and highway construction and repair) such as limestone, sandstone, quartzite, and granite. These alternatives are so abundant that there is little need to consider or use shale in these applications. As mentioned above, shale’s physical properties do not lend it to be useful as dimension stone: it is simply too soft and its laminations cause it to break into thin layers much too easily.
There is little need to consider any kind of substitute or alternative for shale since, presently, it has no important use or application.

Brief introduction

Shale is a detrital sedimentary rock composed of very fine clay-sized particles. Detrital sedimentary rocks are sedimentary rocks composed of the weathered and eroded particles of larger pieces of rock. Clay forms from the decomposition of the mineral feldspar. Other minerals present in shale are quartz, mica, pyrite, and organic matter. Shale forms in very deep ocean water, lagoons, lakes and swamps where the water is still enough to allow the extremely fine clay and silt particles to settle to the floor. Geologists estimate that shale represents almost ¾ of the sedimentary rock on the Earth’s crust. Geologists are specific about the definition of the rock called “shale.” Shale is composed of clay-sized particles that are less than 0.004 mm in size. Siltstone is composed of particles that are between 0.004 and 0.063 mm in size.

Shale can be red, green or black. The different colors are due to different minerals in the shale. Black shale typically has a very high content of oily kerogen. Kerogen is organic matter trapped in the sediments that is the remains mostly of plants and some water-born microorganisms. Kerogen is not oil, but is thought to be the material that, through complex geological processes, becomes oil. Though still economically unfeasible, a process of heating (in an oxygen-depleted environment) can remove kerogen from shale in the form of liquid oil and natural gas.


Shales are very common in the continental crust all over the Earth. In the United States, significant deposits of oil shale are found in the western states. It is estimated that the world’s largest oil field is found in the oil shales under northwestern Colorado. The western U.S. oil shales only cover approximately 17,000 square miles, a relatively small geographical region (including the states of Colorado, Wyoming and Utah). They are very thick, however, and as a result they hold a tremendous reserve of oil, a reserve that represents nearly ¾ of the world’s recoverable oil shale reserves.

BF series flotation machine

Brief introduction

BF series flotation machine is improved from SF series but it is mainly used for iron ore and some other large proportion minerals. It imbibe the air and ore pulp spontaneously and the double-blade impeller can agitate the coarse sand at the bottom adequately.



  1. Impeller is composed of the dosed double section cones and it can produce strong slurry cycle downward.
  2. The capacity of air suction is large, the power consumption is low.
  3. Every tank gas three functions of air suction, slurry suction and flotation simultaneously being unique in flotation return circuit.
  4. The circuit change is convenient for horizontal position without need for any supplementary equipment.
  5. The slurry cycle is rational, the settlement of coarse sand can be reduced into full play.
  6. The regulation is convenient to equip auto and electro-controlling arrangements for slurry level.

Technical data

Model Effective volume (m³) L x D x H (mm) Diameter of impeller (mm) Circular velocity of impeller (m/min) Air suction amount (m³/㎡ .min) Motor power (kw) Capaity (m³/min) Weight Of single tank (kg)
BF-0.25 0.25 650x600x700 250 6 0.9-1.05 1.5 0.12-0.28 370
BF-0.37 0.37 740x740x750 286 7.2 0.9-1.05 1.5 0.2-0.4 470
BF-0.65 0.65 850x950x950 300 7.35 0.9-1.10 3 0.3-0.7 932
BF-1.2 1.2 1050x1150x1100 450 7.02 0.9-1.10 5.5 0.6-1.2 1370
BF-2.0 2 1400x1450x1120 500 7.5 0.9-1.10 7.5 1.0-2.0 1750
BF-2.8 2.8 1650x1650x1150 550 8.06 0.9-1.10 11 1.4-3.0 2130
BF-4.0 4 1900x2000x1200 650 8 0.9-1.10 15 2.4-4.0 2585
BF-6.0 6 2200x2350x1300 700 7.5 0.9-1.10 18.5 3.0-6.0 3300
BF-8.0 8 2250x2850x1400 760 7.5 0.9-1.10 22 4.0-8.0 4130
BF-10 10 2250x2850x1700 760 7.52 0.9-1.10 22 5.0-10 4500
BF-16 16 2850x3800x1700 850 8.7 0.9-1.10 37 8.0-16 8320
BF-20 20 2850x3800x2000 850 8.7 0.9-1.10 45 10.0-20 8670
BF-24 24 3150x4150x2000 920 8.7 0.9-1.10 45 12.0-24 8970



Feldspar is the mineral name given to a group of minerals distinguished by the presence of aluminum (Al) and the silica ion (SiO4) in their chemistry. This group includes aluminum silicates of soda (sodium oxide), potassium (potassium oxide), or lime (calcium oxide). Feldspar is the single most abundant mineral group on Earth. Together, the varieties of feldspar account for one half of the Earth’s crust. The minerals included in this group are orthoclase, microcline, and the plagioclase feldspars. They form in a variety of thermal environments, during the crystallization of liquid rock (magma), by metamorphism of rocks deep in the earth, and in sedimentary processes.Feldspars are generally light-colored, including white, pink, tan, green, or gray. The color varies due to impurities within the crystal structure. Feldspar is the mineral that gives granite its pink, green or gray color.When feldspar weathers from igneous or metamorphic rocks, it can accumulate as sand. It is, however, easily weathered, and eventually will break down into clay.

13.8.29feldspar     13.8.29feldspar0    13.829feldspar1

Crusher for feldspars

Feldspars are relatively hard at 6 on Mohs’ hardness scale. We can choose a PEW series jaw crusher made by Zenith to crusher it,this kind of crusher is mainly used for secondary and tertiary crushing of various medium-hard ores and rocks etc.The unique design concept makes this series crusher achieve perfect combination between crushing efficiency and operating cost. It is an efficient product which is the first choice for crushing high hard and strong abrasive material.

PEW Series Jaw Crusher with respect to the two level of the traditional jaw crusher, whether it’s life, repair rate, fault rate is demonstrated its superiority compared with incomparable, and supporting the use of cone crusher, stone shaping machine, costalso at the end of. Therefore, as a combination of modern technology and production practice, it is more consistent with the production requirements of modern customers.


A rock-forming mineral, industrially important in glass and ceramic industries, pottery and enamelware, soaps, abrasives, bond for abrasive wheels, cements and concretes, insulating compositions, fertilizer, poultry grit, tarred roofing materials, and as a sizing (or filler) in textiles and paper. Albite is a feldspar mineral and is a sodium aluminum silicate. This form of feldspar is used as a glaze in ceramics.
Feldspar is used to make dinnerware and bathroom and building tiles. In ceramics and glass production, feldspar is used as a flux. A flux is a material that lowers the melting temperature of another material, in this case, glass.

Substitutes and Alternative Sources

Feldspar can be replaced by other minerals and mineral mixtures of similar physical properties. Minerals that could be used to replace feldspar include pyrophyllite, clays, talc, and feldspar-silica (quartz) mixtures. The abundance of feldspar will make these substitutions unnecessary for the foreseeable future.


Feldspar is mined from large granite bodies (called plutons by geologists), from pegmatites (formed when the last fluid stages of a crystallizing granite becomes concentrated in small liquid and vapor-rich pockets that allow the growth of extremely large crystals), and from sands composed mostly of feldspar.

Because feldspar is such a large component of the Earth’s crust, it is assumed that the supply of feldspar is more than adequate to meet demand for a very long time to come. It is so abundant that geologists and economists have not even compiled data on potential deposits of feldspar for future consumption. Present mines worldwide are adequately meeting the need for raw feldspar.

The United States produces about $45 million worth of feldspar annually. North Carolina generates nearly half of the raw feldspar produced in the United States. Six other states produce smaller amounts. Other countries producing feldspar include Brazil, Colombia, France, Germany, India, Mexico, Norway and Spain.